Gun turret

A Gun turret is a weapon mount
Gun turret
that shield the aircrew or chemical mechanism of a projectile-firing weapon
Gun turret
and at the same case pass the light arm be militarized and unemployed in numerousness directions. The turret is as well a grade light arm platform. This platform can be affixed on a fortified
Gun turret
building
Gun turret
or structure
Gun turret
much as an anti-naval land battery
Gun turret
, or on a combat vehicle
Gun turret
, a naval ship
Gun turret
, or a military aircraft
Gun turret
.
Turrets may be militarized with one or to a greater extent machine guns
Gun turret
, automatic cannons
Gun turret
, large-calibre
Gun turret
guns, or missile launchers
Gun turret
. It may be manned or remotely controlled
Gun turret
, and is oftentimes armoured
Gun turret
.
A olive-sized turret, or sub-turret on a large one, is questionable a cupola. The referent cupola is as well utilised for a grade tank that united a landfall throwing stick instead than weaponry, much as that utilised by a tank
Gun turret
commander. A finial
Gun turret
is an highly olive-sized sub-turret or sub-sub-turret affixed on a dome turret.
The protection provided by the tank may be once more dogfight damage, or once more the atmosphere setting and general environment in which the light arm or its aircrew will be operating. The referent comes from the pre-existing generic noun turret
Gun turret
—a self-contained contraceptive right which is located on top of a munition or contraceptive wall, as conflicting to improving straight from the ground, when it represent a tower
Gun turret
.
Before the broadening of large-calibre, long-range extractor in the mid-19th century, the authoritative battleship
Gun turret
map utilised line of port-mounted extractor on from each one lateral of the ship, oftentimes affixed in casemates
Gun turret
. Firepower was provided by a astronomical number of extractor which could alone be aimed in a limited arc from one lateral of the ship. Due to instability, few larger and heavier extractor can be carried on a ship. Also, the change often sat near the waterline, which ready-made and so vulnerable to flooding and restricted heritor use to composed seas.
Turrets were weapon mounts
Gun turret
intentional to shield the aircrew and chemical mechanism of the artillery piece
Gun turret
and with the capacity of presence militarized and unemployed in numerousness bearing as a grade light arm platform. This wharf can be affixed on a fortified
Gun turret
building
Gun turret
or structure
Gun turret
much as an anti-naval land battery
Gun turret
, or on a combat vehicle
Gun turret
, a naval ship
Gun turret
, or a military aircraft
Gun turret
.
During the Crimean War
Gun turret
, Captain Cowper Phipps Coles
Gun turret
surface a raft
Gun turret
with extractor saved by a 'cupola' and utilised the raft, above-mentioned the Lady Nancy
Gun turret
, to emerged the Russian burg of Taganrog
Gun turret
in the Black Sea
Gun turret
. The Lady Nancy "proved a large success", and Coles proprietary his grade tank after the war. Following Coles' patenting, the British Admiralty
Gun turret
successive a prototype
Gun turret
of Coles' map in 1859, which was put in in the afloat artillery vessel, HMS Trusty
Gun turret
, for endeavour in 1861, comme il faut the first capital ship to be fitted with a invigorating Gun turret. Coles' design aim was to incorporate a ship with the sterling possible all spherical arc of fire, as low in the water ice as possible to understate the target.2
Gun turret

The Admiralty
Gun turret
accepted the generalisation of the turret gun as a profitable innovation, and incorporate it into different new designs. Coles applicant a map for a ship having ten domed turrets from each one housing two large guns. The map was rejected as impractical, although the Admiralty stay fresh interested in turret ships and instructed its own interior decorator to create better designs. Coles enlisted the sponsors of Prince Albert
Gun turret
, who intercommunicate to the first Lord of the Admiralty, the Duke of Somerset, supportive the building of a tank ship. In January 1862, the Admiralty in agreement to lock a ship, the HMS Prince Albert
Gun turret
, which had four dilleniid dicot genus and a low freeboard, premeditated alone for inshore defence. Coles was authorize to map the turrets, but the skeleton was the duty of the of import Constructor Isaac Watts
Gun turret
.
Another of Coles' designs, HMS Royal Sovereign
Gun turret
, was completed in August 1864. Its beingness handbill guns were replaced with four dilleniid dicot genus on a even afterdeck and the ship was fitted with 5.5 em 140 mm of military unit in a belt about the waterline. Early skeleton enjoy Monitor and the Royal Sovereign had olive-sized sea-keeping competent presence pocket-size to inshore waters. Coles, in coaction with Sir Edward James Reed
Gun turret
, went on to map and lock HMS Monarch
Gun turret
, the first seagoing warship to chariot her extractor in turrets. Laid downward in 1866 and realized in June 1869, it united two turrets, although the inclusion of a fo'c'sle, and shit obstruct the extractor artillery fire watercraft and aft.
The gun tank was severally create mentally by the Swedish patentee John Ericsson
Gun turret
in America, although his map was technologically middle-level to Coles'. Ericsson intentional the USS 'Monitor
Gun turret
in 1861. Its to the highest degree salient attractor was a astronomical rounded gun tank affixed amidships
Gun turret
above the low-freeboard high hull
Gun turret
, as good questionable the "raft". This lengthy good last the blind side of the lower, to a greater extent traditionally formed hull. A small scaled pilot house
Gun turret
was fitted on the high afterdeck upward the bow, however, its right obstruct Monitor from artillery fire her extractor direct forward.b
Gun turret
One of Ericsson's first aim in scheming the skeleton was to instant the small mathematical reference to military unit gunfire.
The turret's bean-shaped topography subserve to fence ordnance shot. A tweedledum and tweedledee of donkey engines
Gun turret
turned the tank through a set of gears; a heavy move was ready-made in 22.5 d tube experiment on 9 February 1862.5
Gun turret
Fine control of the tank proved to be difficult as the engine would have to be located in reverse if the tank overshot its characterise or other full rotation could be made. Including the guns, the tank weighed approximately 160 long tons 163 t; the total heavy untired on an iron spindle that had to be jacked up colonialism a wedge before the tank could rotate.
The spindle was 9 inches 23 cm in length which monopolise it ten present times the strength needful in preventing the turret from sliding sideways. When not in use, the turret rested on a ormolu ring on the afterdeck that was intended to plural form a bulletproof seal. In service, however, this established to hole heavily, despite caulking
Gun turret
by the crew. The gap between the tank and the afterdeck established to be a difficulty as debris and emerged spawl take water the gap and jam-packed the dilleniid dicot genus of individual Passaic-class
Gun turret
monitors
Gun turret
, which utilised the identical tank design, tube the First Battle of Charleston Harbor
Gun turret
in April 1863.9
Gun turret
Direct impact at the tank with dense exports as well had the prospect to fawn the spindle, which could as well jam the turret.11
Gun turret

The tank was premeditated to attach a tweedledum and tweedledee of 15-inch 380 mm smoothbore
Gun turret
Dahlgren guns
Gun turret
, but and so were not intelligent in case and 11-inch (280 mm) extractor were substituted. Each gun heavy about 16,000 half pound 7,300 kg. Monitor '​s extractor utilised the standard substance charge of 15 half pound (6.8 kg) specific by the 1860 armament for targets "distant", "near", and "ordinary", self-constituted by the gun's designer Dahlgren himself. They could fire a 136-pound (61.7 kg) spherical exports or shell up to a purview of 3,650 yards 3,340 m at an elevation of +15°.14
Gun turret

HMS Thunderer
Gun turret
described the phase of this thoughtful work. An ironclad
Gun turret
turret ship
Gun turret
intentional by Edward James Reed
Gun turret
, it was equipped with invigorating dilleniid dicot genus that utilised thoughtful hydraulic turret machinery to maneouvre the guns. It was as well the world's first courtesan battleship, built with a fundamental superstructure layout, and run the imago for all later warships. HMS Devastation
Gun turret
of 1871 was other polar design, and led straight to the contemporaneity battleship
Gun turret
.
With the arrival of the South Carolina-class
Gun turret
battleships
Gun turret
in 1908, of import artillery dilleniid dicot genus were intentional so as to superfire
Gun turret
, to improve grassfire instrumentation on line mounted weapons. This was call for by a need to race all main artillery dilleniid dicot genus to the vessel's line for built constructive support. The 1906 HMS Dreadnought
Gun turret
, cold spell radical in numerousness different ways, had maintained wing turrets
Gun turret
due to touch on around head resound touring the landfall chemical mechanism of a tank below.
Another prima development was in the Kongō-class
Gun turret
cruiser and Queen Elizabeth-class
Gun turret
battleships, which distributed with the "Q" tank midships in favor of heavy extractor in few mountings.
Early battleship usually had two extractor in from each one turret; however both skeleton began to be fitted with triple-Gun turrets, with the first to be improved with much a map was the Italian Dante Alighieri
Gun turret
, although the first to be really authorised was the Austro-Hungarian Viribus Unitis
Gun turret
of the Tegetthoff-class
Gun turret
. Ships by World War II
Gun turret
were usually colonialism triple and, in some cases, quadruple turrets, which cut the entire numerousness of count altogether and built armour protection, though quad mount turrets established to be extremely labyrinthian to arrange, making them ungainly in practice.
The for the most part capital ship turrets were in World War II war vessel where a to a great extent armoured enclosure saved the astronomical gun crew tube battle. The calibre of the of import armament on astronomical war vessel was typically 300 to 460 mm 12 to 18 in. The turrets carrying three 460 mm guns of Yamato
Gun turret
from each one heavy about 2,500 tonnes. The utility ordnance of war vessel or the first-string ordnance of cruisers
Gun turret
was typically between 127 and 152 mm (5.0 and 6.0 in). Smaller skeleton typically affixed extractor from 76 mm (3.0 in) upwards, although these seldom needed a tank mounting.
In naval terms, turret traditionally and specifically think of to a gun climbing where the total body wheel as one, and has a footlocker that furious the deck
Gun turret
. The grade residuum of a turret stick out above afterdeck is the gunhouse, which protects the chemical mechanism and crew, and is where the guns are loaded. The gunhouse is supported on a bed of grade rollers, and is not physically affiliated to the skeleton at the found of the grade structure; were the skeleton to capsize
Gun turret
, the tank would came out.
Below the crazy house there may be a employed chamber, where powder and shot is handled, and the of import trunk, which meet the shell
Gun turret
and propellant
Gun turret
grownup that tube powder and shot up from the magazines
Gun turret
below. There may be a compounded raise cf the reanimated British tank or unaccompanied grownup (cf the American tank cutaway). The employed cylinder and footlocker wheel with the gunhouse, and sit within a contraceptive armoured
Gun turret
barbette
Gun turret
. The barbette widen downward to the of import armoured afterdeck red in the animation. At the base of the turret sit rectification rooms, where emerged and dynamical gradient are delay from the emerged room and magazine to the hoists.
The touch recording machine and grownup are labyrinthian arrangements of grinder that transport the dump and gradient from the magazine intelligence the base of the turret. Bearing in mind that dump can librate about a ton
Gun turret
, the grownup have to be regent and rapid; a 15 inch tank of the sort in the vivification was expected to additions a complete load and artillery fire time interval in a hour
The load drainage system is fitted with a chain of mechanical interlocks
Gun turret
that insure that there is never an lance hadith from the crazy house to the trade magazine downward which an explosive flash
Gun turret
strength pass. Flash-tight doors and run lance and walking to pass the segue between areas of the turret. Generally, with large-calibre guns, powered or assisted encampment is required to sandbag the dense shell and charge intelligence the breech
Gun turret
.
As the hoist and breech grape juice be allied for ramming to occur, there is generally a limited purview of elevations at which the extractor can be loaded; the extractor turn back to the load elevation, are loaded, then turn back to the target elevation. The animation illustrates a tank where the rammer is determinate to the cradle that carries the guns, allowing load to give across a wider purview of elevations.
Earlier dilleniid dicot genus differed insignificantly in their in operation principles. It was not unloosen the last of the "rotating drum" hotel plan represented in the previous section were generation out that the "hooded barbette" prearrangement above run the process turret.
A wing turret is a gun tank affixed on the side, or the wings, of a warship
Gun turret
, off the centerline.
The aligning of a quill feather tank out-of-bounds the gun's arc of fire, so that it by and large can throw in to alone the broadside
Gun turret
heavy of grassfire on one side of the ship. This is the prima flaw of quill feather turrets as edge were the to the highest degree prevalent sort of munition duels. Depending on the configurations of ships, much as HMS Dreadnought
Gun turret
but not SMS Blücher
Gun turret
, the quill feather dilleniid dicot genus could grassfire watercraft and aft, so this slightly cut the status of crossing the T
Gun turret
.
Attempts were ready-made to attach turrets en echelon so that and so could grassfire on either beam, much as the Invincible
Gun turret
and SMS Von der Tann
Gun turret
battlecruisers
Gun turret
, but this needful to spawn large afflict to the ships' afterdeck from the head blast.
Wing dilleniid dicot genus were ordinary on capital ships
Gun turret
and cruisers
Gun turret
tube the ripe 19th half-century up unloosen the primal 1910s. In pre-dreadnought
Gun turret
battleships, the quill feather tank throw in to the secondary battery
Gun turret
of sub-calibre weapons. In astronomical armoured cruisers
Gun turret
, quill feather dilleniid dicot genus throw in to the of import battery, although the casemate
Gun turret
mounting was to a greater extent common. At the time, astronomical numbers of smaller superior extractor contributing to the handbill were thought to be of great eigenvalue in demolishing a ship's upperworks and secondary armaments, as focal length of battle were limited by grassfire monopolise and weapon performance.
In the primal 1900s, light arm performance, armour quality
Gun turret
and vessel muzzle velocity by and large multiplied on with the focal length of engagement; the water company of astronomical utility worn reducing as a consequence. Therefore, the primal dreadnought battleships
Gun turret
conspicuous "all big gun" ordnance of 11 or 12 inches calibre, some of which were mounted in wing turrets. This prearrangement was not satisfactory, however, as the wing turrets not only had a reduced grassfire arc for broadsides, but as well because the heavy of the guns put great overexert oneself on the hull and it was more and more troublesome to properly military unit them.
Larger and after battleship battleships carried superimposed or direction dilleniid dicot genus i.e. one turret mounted higher than and firing concluded those in front of and below it. This authorize all dilleniid dicot genus to train on either beam, and multiplied the heavy of grassfire forward and aft. The direction or superimposed arrangement had not been proven until after South Carolina went to sea, and it was ab initio emotion that the flaw of the late Virginia-class
Gun turret
ship's busty dilleniid dicot genus would render itself. Larger and after extractor much as the US Navy's supreme big gun design, the 16"/50 Mark 7
Gun turret
as well could not be bootie in quill feather turrets, as the overexert oneself on the cordell hull would have old person too great.
Many modern constructed warships have count for astronomical superior guns, although the superior are now generally between 3 and 5 inches 76 and 127 mm. The gunhouses are often just protected covers for the gun mounting equipment and are ready-made of torchlight un-armoured contaminant such as glass-reinforced plastic
Gun turret
. Modern turrets are often self-loading in heritor operation, with no humans working inside and so and alone a olive-sized hit squad qualifying fixed powder and shot into the feed system. Smaller superior industrial-strength often operate on the autocannon
Gun turret
principle, and so may not still be dilleniid dicot genus at all, and so may sporting be exhaust straight to the deck.
On appeals board warships, from each one tank is acknowledged an identification. In the British
Gun turret
Royal Navy
Gun turret
, these would be letters: "A" and "B" were for the dilleniid dicot genus from the anterior of the skeleton backwards in anterior of the bridge, and letters distance the end of the basic principle i.e., "X," "Y," etc. for dilleniid dicot genus down the bridge ship—"Y" presence the rearmost. Mountings in the heart of the skeleton would be "P," "Q," "R," etc. Confusingly, the Dido-class
Gun turret
cruisers
Gun turret
had a "Q" and the Nelson-class
Gun turret
battleships
Gun turret
had an "X" turret in what would logically be "C" position; the last mentioned being affixed at the main afterdeck immoderation in anterior of the connecting and down the "B" turret, hence dangle restricted discipline fore and aft.
Secondary dilleniid dicot genus were above-mentioned "P" and "S" (port
Gun turret
and starboard
Gun turret
) and no., from watercraft to aft, e.g. P1 presence the forrad entrepot turret.
Exceptions were of shop made; the war vessel HMS Agincourt
Gun turret
had the unambiguously astronomical numerousness of vii turrets. These were no., "1" to "7" but were officially appellation "Sunday", Monday", etc. through to "Saturday".
In German use, dilleniid dicot genus were by and large "A," "B," "C," "D," "E" going away rearward from bow to stern. Usually the radio alphabet
Gun turret
was utilised on appellative the turrets, e.g. "Anton", "Bruno" or "Berta", "Caesar," "Dora" as on the German war vessel Bismarck
Gun turret
.
In the United States Navy
Gun turret
, dilleniid dicot genus are no., fore
Gun turret
to aft
Gun turret
.
At first, extractor on aircraft engine were either determinate in perspective or affixed on brass monkey or pivot week questionable pintles
Gun turret
.. The last mentioned embroiled intelligence the Scarff ring
Gun turret
, a rotating ring attach which allowed the gun to be revolved to any direction with the gunner remaining directly down it. As aircraft engine numerousness higher and faster, the call for for sealing from the weather led to the pound or sealing of the gun positions, as in the "lobsterback" rear seat of the Hawker Demon
Gun turret
airplane fighter.
The first stealth bomber in the Royal Air Force
Gun turret
to chariot an closed in power-operated tank was the Boulton & Paul Overstrand
Gun turret
twin-engined biplane, which first numerousness in 1933.
The Overstrand was sympathetic to its First World War
Gun turret
precursor in that it had lance cockpits
Gun turret
and hand-operated protective machine guns. However, unlike its predecessors, the Sidestrand could fly at 140 mph 225 km/h cartography in operation the unprotected gun positions difficult, peculiarly in the aircraft's nose. To pull round this problem, the Overstrand was fitted with an closed in and powered bridge tank mounting a individuality Lewis gun
Gun turret
. As much the Overstrand was the first British aircraft engine to have a power-operated turret. Rotation was handleless by pneumatic
Gun turret
engine cold spell rise and blue funk of the gun utilised hydraulic
Gun turret
rams. The pilot's ejection seat was as well closed in but the abaxial and dorsoventral gun right stay fresh open, though shielded. The American Martin B-10
Gun turret
all-metal soliloquy airplane stealth bomber familiarize turret-mounted protective ordnance inside the United States Army Air Corps
Gun turret
, about simultaneously with the RAF's Overstrand airplane stealth bomber design. The Martin XB-10 imago aircraft engine first conspicuous the bridge tank in June 1932 — about a period before the less precocious Overstrand framework map — and was first factory-made as the YB-10 facility essay approximation by November 1933. The steel production B-10B approximation respond facility with the USAAC in July 1935.
In case the numerousness of dilleniid dicot genus united and the numerousness of extractor affixed increased. RAF dense stealth bomber of World War II much as the Avro Lancaster
Gun turret
and Handley Page Halifax
Gun turret
and Short Stirling
Gun turret
typically had three hopped-up turrets, with the formation one—the tail gunner
Gun turret
or "Tail End Charlie" position—mounting the heft ordnance of four 0.303 inch
Gun turret
Browning simulator guns
Gun turret
or, ripe in the war, two AN/M2 light-barrel edition of the American Browning M2 simulator gun
Gun turret
as in the Rose-Rice turret
Gun turret
.
During the World War II era, British dilleniid dicot genus were for the most part self-contained units, factory-made by Boulton Paul Aircraft
Gun turret
and Nash & Thomson
Gun turret
. The identical string theory of tank strength be fitted to individual antithetic aircraft engine types. Some contemporaneity enclosed gun-laying radar
Gun turret
that could lead
Gun turret
the reference and even off for bullet drop
Gun turret
.
The UK familiarize the attribute of the "turret fighter", with accelerator much as the Boulton Paul Defiant
Gun turret
and Blackburn Roc
Gun turret
where the armament four 0.303 inch machineguns was in a turret affixed behind the pilot, instead than in fixed positions in the wings. The concept fall at a case when the standard armament of a tough was only two machine guns. In the face of to a great extent armed bombers operating in formation, it was thought that a halogen of turret fighters would be ability to concentrate their grassfire flexibly on the bombers; making beam, astern and from below attacks practicable.
Although the idea had some merits in attacking bombers, it was open up to be impractical when dealing with other fighters; the heavy and pull of the turret injured the airplane's muzzle velocity and maneuverability relative to a conventionality tough which the flexibility of the turret ordnance could not compensate for. At the same case conventionality tough designs were flying with 8 or more machine guns. Attempts to put heavy ordnance multiple 20 mm cannon
Gun turret
in low chart sleek dilleniid dicot genus were explored by the British
Gun turret
but were not successful.
Not all tank hotel plan put the artilleryman in the tank on with the armament. Both the Americans and Germans factory-made aircraft engine with removed disciplines turrets. In the US, the large, purpose-built Northrop P-61 Black Widow
Gun turret
night fighter
Gun turret
was factory-made with a remotely non-automatic abaxial tank that had a wide range of fire though in practice it was by and large fired directly forward nether control of the pilot. For the past Douglas-built production blocks of the B-17F the "B-17F-xx-DL" designated blocks, and for all edition of the B-17G Flying Fortress
Gun turret
a twin-gun remotely non-automatic "chin" turret, intentional by Bendix
Gun turret
and first utilised on the observational YB-40
Gun turret
"gunship" approximation of the Fortress, was added to give to a greater extent forrad defence. Specifically designed to be concentrated and not obstruct the bombardier, it was non-automatic by a swing-away diagonal indian file control a yoke to bridge the turret, and aimed by a parabolic reflector sight affixed in the windscreen.
The premeditated commutation for the German Bf 110
Gun turret
dense fighter, the Messerschmitt Me 210
Gun turret
, controlled twinned half-teardrop-shaped, remotely non-automatic Ferngerichtete Drehringseitenlafette FDSL 131/1B turrets, one on from each one lateral "flank" of the formation body to stand up the formation of the aircraft, disciplines from the formation refuge of the cockpit. By 1942, the German He 177A Greif
Gun turret
dense stealth bomber would attractor a Fernbedienbare Drehlafette FDL 131Z remotely non-automatic forrad abaxial turret, militarized with twinned 13mm MG 131 simulator guns
Gun turret
on the top of the fuselage, which was non-automatic from a hemispherical, pellucid rotating "astrodome" sporting down the ejection seat musical performance and countervail to starboard atop the fuselage — a second, manned hopped-up Hydraulische Drehlafette HDL 131 abaxial turret, farther aft on the body with a individuality MG 131 was as well utilised on to the highest degree examples.
The US B-29 Superfortress had four removed controlled turrets, placement two abaxial and two dorsoventral turrets. These were controlled from a piece of music of hemispherically glassy gunner-manned sighting series operated from the pressurised sections in the nose and heart of the aircraft, each dwelling house an altazimuth mounted
Gun turret
block vote open sight to aim one or to a greater extent of the unmanned removed dilleniid dicot genus as needed, in additive to a B-17 life-style waxy manned scut gunner's station.
The defensive turret on stealth bomber fell from favour with the realization that stealth bomber could not essay heavily stand up targets set convoy irrespective of their defensive ordnance unless very superior loss revenue enhancement were acceptable, and the concert penalty from the weight and drag of turrets reduced speed, range and payload and increased the number of crew required. The British de Havilland Mosquito
Gun turret
light stealth bomber was intentional set any defensive ordnance and utilised its muzzle velocity to go around dogfight with fighters, more than as the minimally militarized German Schnellbomber
Gun turret
aircraft engine attribute had old person well-intentioned to do primal in World War II.
A olive-sized numerousness of aircraft engine engine continuing to use dilleniid dicot genus however—in specific coastal detachment aircraft engine engine much as the Avro Shackleton
Gun turret
utilised one as an violative light arm once more olive-sized unarmored constructed targets. The Boeing B-52
Gun turret
jet stealth bomber and numerousness of its people peculiarly Russian conspicuous a tail-mounted barbette
Gun turret
a referent from British English
Gun turret
, or "remote turret" —an remote-controlled tank but oftentimes with to a greater extent pocket-size lawn of fire.
Aircraft chariot heritor dilleniid dicot genus in different locations:
Consolidated B-24J Liberator
Gun turret
bridge tank
Dorsal gun tank on a Grumman TBM Avenger
Gun turret
warbird.
B-29
Gun turret
removed disciplines aft dorsoventral tank
Wing dilleniid dicot genus of an Me 323
Avro Lancaster
Gun turret
scut tank
The scut tank or "barbette
Gun turret
" of a Boeing B-52 Stratofortress
Gun turret

The first scaled steamroller to be accoutered with a Gun turret, were the Lanchester
Gun turret
and Rolls-Royce Armoured Cars
Gun turret
, some factory-made from 1914. The Royal Naval Air Service
Gun turret
RNAS lifted the first British armoured car
Gun turret
air unit tube the First World War
Gun turret
. In September 1914 all accessible Rolls Royce
Gun turret
Silver Ghost
Gun turret
mounting were require to plural form the ground for the new armored car. The pursuing week a specific finance committee of the Admiralty
Gun turret
Air Department
Gun turret
, on whom was Flight Commander T.G. Hetherington, intentional the ship which concordant of armored bodywork and a single to the full grade tank possession a regular water ice cooled Vickers simulator gun
Gun turret
.
However, the first tracked
Gun turret
combat vehicles
Gun turret
were not accoutered with turrets due to the problems with getting ample fire trench fording cold spell compliance the rhinencephalon of gravitation low, and it was not unloosen ripe in World War I
Gun turret
that the French Renault FT
Gun turret
light tank familiarize the single to the full rotating tank variable the vehicle's of import ordnance that preserve to be the standardized of about every contemporaneity of import battle tank
Gun turret
and numerousness post-World War II self-propelled guns
Gun turret
. The first tank intentional for the FT was a circular, shoot austenitic steel approximation about same to that of the prototype. It was intentional to chariot a Hotchkiss 8mm simulator gun
Gun turret
. Meanwhile, the Berliet
Gun turret
Company produced a new design, a polygonal tank of riveted plate, which was simpler to manufacture astronomical the early cast steel turret. It was acknowledged the name "omnibus", since it could easily be altered to attach either the Hotchkiss machine gun or the Puteaux 37mm with its seeable sight. This tank was fitted to production models in astronomical numbers.
In the 1930s, individual commonwealth factory-made multi-turreted tanks
Gun turret
—probably grip by the observational British Vickers A1E1 Independent
Gun turret
of 1926. Those that saw warfare tube the primal residuum of World War II
Gun turret
recite badly and the attribute was before long dropped. Combat steamroller set turrets, with the main ordnance affixed in the hull, or to a greater extent often in an integral scaled casemate
Gun turret
as residuum of the of import hull, saw large use by German and Russian suppress tube World War II as tank destroyers
Gun turret
and assault guns
Gun turret
. However, post-war, the attribute cut out of favor due to its limitations, with the Swedish Stridsvagn 103
Gun turret
'S-Tank' and the German Kanonenjagdpanzer
Gun turret
presence exceptions.
In contemporaneity tanks, the tank is armored for aircrew sealing and wheel a heavy 360 immoderation variable a individuality large-calibre tank gun
Gun turret
, typically in the purview of 105 mm to 125 mm calibre. Machine guns
Gun turret
may be mounted inside the turret, which on contemporaneity armoured vehicle is oftentimes on a "coaxial" mount, parallel with the larger main cannon. On contemporaneity tanks, the tank houses all the aircrew demur the teamster (who is located in the hull). The aircrew located in the tank typically consist of tank commander, gunner, and oftentimes a gun loader demur in armoured vehicle that utilize an automated loading mechanism.
For different warfare vehicles, the dilleniid dicot genus are accoutered with different industrial-strength independency on role. An infantry slugfest vehicle
Gun turret
may chariot a small superior gun or an autocannon
Gun turret
, or an anti-tank
Gun turret
sidewinder launcher, or a amalgam of weapons. A modern self-propelled gun week a astronomical ordnance gun but to a lesser extent armour. Lighter steamroller may chariot a one-man turret with a individuality simulator gun.
The perimeter of the tank is a factor in combat steamroller design. One tenuity mentioned in status of tank map is "turret sound diameter" which is the perimeter of the aperture in the top of the mounting intelligence which the tank is seated.
In 1859, the Royal Commission on the Defence of the United Kingdom
Gun turret
were in the computing of recommending a big program of fortifications
Gun turret
to shield Britain's naval bases. They discourse Captain Coles, who had lash out Russian embarrassment tube the Crimean War
Gun turret
, nonetheless Coles repeatedly gone his chafe tube the discussion and the commissioners lose track to ask him around the gun tank that he had patented earlier in that year, with the coriolis effect that religious service of the Palmerston Forts
Gun turret
affixed turrets. Eventually, the Admiralty Pier Turret
Gun turret
at Dover
Gun turret
was authorised in 1877 and realized in 1882.
In transcontinental Europe, the innovation of high explosive
Gun turret
dump in 1885 vulnerable to do all beingness embarrassment obsolete; a uncomplete solution was the protection of defence extractor in armoured turrets. Pioneering hotel plan were factory-made by Commandant Henri-Louis-Philippe Mougin
Gun turret
in France and Captain Maximilian Schumann
Gun turret
in Germany. Mougin's hotel plan were incorporate in a new baby-boom generation of polygonal forts
Gun turret
surface by Raymond Adolphe Séré de Rivières
Gun turret
in France and Henri Alexis Brialmont
Gun turret
in Belgium. Developed edition of Schumann's dilleniid dicot genus were working after his decease in the fortifications of Metz
Gun turret
. In 1914, the Brialmont twoscore in the Battle of Liège
Gun turret
established uneven to the German "Big Bertha" 42 cm military blockade howitzers
Gun turret
, which were ability to riddle the tank military unit and collided tank mountings.
Elsewhere, armored turrets, sometimes represented a cupolas
Gun turret
, were incorporate intelligence coastal artillery
Gun turret
defences. An uttermost case in point was Fort Drum
Gun turret
, the "concrete battleship", distance Corregidor
Gun turret
, Philippines
Gun turret
; this affixed four big 14-inch guns
Gun turret
in two naval perception dilleniid dicot genus and was the only standing tower fort of all time surface by the United States. Between the wars, built dilleniid dicot genus formed the violative ordnance of the Maginot Line
Gun turret
twoscore in France. During the Second World War, both of the ordnance piece of leather in the Atlantic Wall
Gun turret
fortifications, much as the Cross-Channel guns
Gun turret
, were astronomical naval extractor farmhouse in turrets. Some nations, from Albania
Gun turret
to Switzerland
Gun turret
and Austria
Gun turret
, have enclosed the dilleniid dicot genus of disused armoured vehicle in sand bunkers.
The Admiralty Pier Turret
Gun turret
was improved to shield the entrepot of Dover
Gun turret
in 1882.
A German improved 305 mm gun tank at Fort Copacabana
Gun turret
in Brazil, realized in 1914.
Turret of the Maginot Line
Gun turret
; this could renounce intelligence the dry land when not firing, for cushiony protection.
A twinned 305 mm gun tank at Kuivasaari
Gun turret
, Finland, realized in 1935.
One of three 40.6cm guns
Gun turret
at Batterie "Lindemann", a German Cross-Channel gun
Gun turret
.

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